Record low temperatures
Low Temperature Laboratory has produced several world records of low temperatures in about thirty years span and still holds the record for macroscopic condensed matter systems. We reached nano- and picokelvin range temperatures by cooling nuclear spin systems in different metals (Cu, Ag, Rh) - see the diagram below. Our latest effort produced 100 pK for the nuclear spin system of rhodium metal. Recently, however, atomic spins in ultracold magneto-optically trapped atom ensembles have been cooled to similar range of temperatures.