Nanophysics is one of the most fascinating fields of modern-day physics. It combines both the fundamental research and the aim for useful applications. In nanoelectronic circuits quantum phenomena characteristic for microscopic systems show up in easily measurable quantities such as currents and voltages. This course gives the students an overview of the basic phenomena taking place in nanoelectronic circuits at low temperatures, including single-electron and phase-coherent effects, noise and dissipation, and discusses some of their applications ranging from nanoscale transistors to quantum computing.
This course will be lectured during the Fall term 2005. The first lecture is on 22.9.
The course amounts to 3 credit points (according to the old system).
Lecturer: Dr Tero Heikkilä
Assistant: Pauli Virtanen
Lectures: Thursdays 15.30-17.15 Hall F3 (Note the time!)
Exercises: Mondays 12-14 Hall F2 (starting Sep 26th)
The course will also contain an excursion to the experimental nanoelectronics research groups (nano and pico) at the Low Temperature Laboratory
Language: English if the number of non-Finnish speakers is non-vanishing. The lecture notes will be in English.
Passing: Whole-term exam + points from the exercises
The course is recommended for interested undergraduate and graduate students with basic knowledge on quantum mechanics and solid state physics (for example, have passed courses Tfy-44.126 and Tfy-3.362).
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Results
Note that the first exams take place on
Thursday the 15th December at 9-12 in the Hall
F1.
This was different in an earlier
exam schedule.
Lecture notes:
Low Temperature laboratory
excursion was held on Thursday 13th October, at 10
am.
Dr Juha Vartiainen was your guide.
Exercises:
Solutions:
Tentative schedule:
General
concepts
Studied systems
Energy, time and length
scales
When is Ohm's law valid and when it is not, how is it
broken?
Scattering
theory of quantum transport
Reservoirs, leads and scattering
states
Scattering matrix
Landauer formula
Resistance of a
ballistic low-dimensional contact
Connection to the Drude formula
Interference
effects in quantum wires
Weak and strong
localization
Aharonov-Bohm effect
Universal conductance
fluctuations
Dephasing
Semiclassical
Boltzmann equation
Distribution function and its kinetic
equation
Different forms of scattering
Diffusive limit and
Drude formula
Thermoelectric effects
Single-electron
tunneling and Coulomb blockade
Tunnel Hamiltonian and
Anderson model
Sequential tunneling
Quantum
dots
Single-electron transistor SET
Dynamical Coulomb
blockade, effect of environment
Higher-order effects:
cotunneling, Kondo effect
Applications: transistor, thermometer
Introduction
to superconductivity
Basic concepts: dissipationless
transport, pairing, energy gap
Josephson effect
Tunnel
structures: quasiparticle current and supercurrent
Andreev
reflection and proximity effect
Small
Josephson junctions and open quantum systems
RCSJ
model
Hamiltonian of a Josephson junction
Superconducting
SET
Dissipation in quantum systems: Caldera-Leggett -model
Noise
I
Fluctuation-dissipation theorem
Thermal and quantum
noise
Shot noise: effective charge
Noise in electric
circuits
Symmetrization and frequency dependence
Noise
II
Effect of noise in small systems
Cross
correlations
Full counting statistics
Linear
response theory (if time allows)
Hamiltonian
Response
functions
Derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation
theorem
Connection to the measurement theory
Advanced topics (if time allows)
Literature
Datta: Electron Transport in Mesoscopic Systems
T. Dittrich, P. Hänggi, G.-L. Ingold, B. Kramer, G. Schön, and W. Zwerger: Quantum Transport and Dissipation
Ya. A. Blanter and M. Büttiker: “Shot Noise in Mesoscopic Conductors”, Physics Reports 336, 1 (2000)
F. Giazotto, T. T. Heikkilä, A. Luukanen, A. M. Savin, and J. P. Pekola: “Electronic refrigeration: Physics and Applications”