Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology,
Otakaari 3A, 02150 Espoo, Finland
L.D. Landau Instute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin Str. 2, 117334 Moscow, Russia
April 22, 1996
The spectrum of the fermion zero modes in the vicinity of the vortex with fractional winding number is discussed. This is inspired by the observation of the 1/2 vortex in high-temperature superconductors . The fractional value of the winding number leads to the fractional value of the invariant, which describes the topology of the energy spectrum of fermions. This results in the phenomenon of the "half-crossing": the spectrum approaches zero but does not cross it, being captured at the zero energy level. The similarity with the phenomenon of the fermion condensation is discussed.
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